Bibliography: Mardi Gras

Team: Lissa Capo (lead) and Wayne Phillips
Version: July 2011

Some suggestions for essential starting places are noted with double asterisks. Sub-categories are available for the following topics:

Main Bibliography

Alexander, Susan M. “Review of Mardi Gras- Made in China.” Teaching Sociology 34, no. 2 (April 2006): 203-205.

Aloian, Molly. Mardi Gras and Carnival. Crabtree Publishing Company, 2009.

Anding, Jill. “Doubloon Fever Spikes Anew.” The Times-Picayune. New Orleans, January 10, 2009, sec. Living.

Atkins, Jennifer. “Setting the stage : dance and gender in old-line New Orleans Carnival balls, 1870-1920,” 2008.

Atkinson, Paul. “Trinket-Catching Major Part of Mardi Gras Fun.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, La., February 8, 1967. http://infoweb.newsbank.com.ezproxy.uno.edu/iw-search/we/HistArchive/.

Bagert, Brod, and Charlie Smith. “Throw Me Something’ Mistuh! The Mardi Gras Book.” Juliahouse Publishing Company, 1995.

Bakhtin, Mikhail. Rabelais and His World. Indiana University Press, 2009.

Bolnar, C. “Going for the purple, green,
and gold.” The Times-Picayune. New Orleans, September 7, 2003, sec. 1.

Burrus, Mrs. Geo J. “Society.” Columbus Ledger. Columbus, Ga., February 16, 1913. http://infoweb.newsbank.com.ezproxy.uno.edu/iw-search/we/HistArchive/.

Capo, Lissa. ““Throw Me Something, Mister”: The History of Carnival Throws in New Orleans.” M. A. Thesis, New Orleans, LA: University of New Orleans, 2011. http://louisdl.louislibraries.org/u?/NOD,1164.

“Carnival Collection- Louisiana Division- New Orleans Public Library.” New Orleans Public Library, n.d. http://nutrias.org/~nopl/carnival/main.htm.

“Carnival Collection- The Historic New Orleans Collection.” The Historic New Orleans Collection, n.d. http://hnoc.minisisinc.com/THNOC/SCRIPTS/mwimain.dll?UNIONSEARCH&APPLICATION=THNOC&LANGUAGE=144&ERRMSG=[WWW_THNOC]No_Record.htm&EXP=COLLE_THEME_CL+%27Carnival-Mardi%20Gras%27.

Cohen, Hennig. “The Terminology of Mardi Gras.” American Speech 26, no. 2 (May 1951): 110-115.

Collin, Richard. “The Tage’s Visit to New Orleans, Mardi, Gras, 1903: Changing French Naval Strategy and Carnival Goodwill.” Louisiana History 35, no. 1 (1994): 51.

Couch, Robert. “The public masked balls of antebellum New Orleans : a custom of masque outside the Mardi Gras tradition : a thesis,” 1992.

Dufour, Charles. Krewe of Proteus: The First Hundred Years. New Orleans, LA: The Krewe of Proteus, 1981.

DuFour, Charles L., and Leonard V. Huber. If Ever I Cease to Love: One Hundred Years of Rex
1872- 1971
. New Orleans, LA: The School of Design, 1970.

DuFour, Pie. “Doubloon Mania Started By Rex.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 2, 1975. http://infoweb.newsbank.com.ezproxy.uno.edu/iw-search/we/HistArchive/.

———. “Ingredients Set Our Parades Apart.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, January 30, 1966. http://infoweb.newsbank.com.ezproxy.uno.edu/iw-search/we/HistArchive/.

———. “Mardi Gras Quiz Time.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 13, 1955. http://infoweb.newsbank.com.ezproxy.uno.edu/iw-search/we/HistArchive/.

Filosa, Gwen. “Aiming to Please.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 2, 2010.

———. “Mardi Gras Throw Orders Rising, Krewe Captains Say.” The Times-Picayune. New Orleans, LA, February 1, 2010. nola.com.

Finn, Kathy. “Beads as a Business.” New Orleans, February 2011.

Flake, Carol. New Orleans: Behind the Masks of America’s Most Exotic City. 1st ed. Grove Pr, 1994.

———. The last masquerade : war and revelry in New Orleans. 1st ed. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1994.

Foran, Jill. Mardi Gras. Weigl Publishers, 2003.

Gaffney, James. “Put the Time in the Coconut.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 19, 2003.

Gaudet, Marcia. “”Mardi Gras, Chic-a-la-Pie:” Reasserting Creole Identity Through Festive Play.” The Journal of American Folklore 114, no. 452 (Spring 2001): 154-174.

Gaudet, Marcia, and James C. McDonald. Mardi Gras, Gumbo, and Zydeco: Readings in Louisiana Culture. University Press of Mississippi, 2003.

Gill, James. Lords of Misrule: Mardi Gras and the Politics of Race in New Orleans. University Press of Mississippi, 1997.

Gotham, Kevin. Authentic New Orleans: Tourism, Culture, and Race in the Big Easy. NYU Press, 2007.

Gotham, Kevin Fox. “Contrasts of Carnival: Mardi Gras Between the Modern and Postmodern.” In Illuminating Social Life. 4th ed. Pine Forge Press, 2007.

———. “Marketing Mardi Gras: Commodification, Spectacle, and the Political Economy of Tourism in New Orleans.” Urban Studies 39, no. 10 (September 2002): 1735-56.

———. “Tourism From Above and Below: Globalization, Localization, and New Orleans’s Mardi Gras.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29, no. 2 (June 2005). http://www.tulane.edu/~kgotham/gotham.html.

“Guide to Resources in New Orleans Repositories for the Study of
Carnival in New Orleans.” New Orleans Public Library. The Greater New Orleans Archivists, n.d. http://nutrias.org/~nopl/gnoa/mgguide/contents.htm.

Gulevich, Tanya. Encyclopedia of Easter, Carnival, and Lent. Detroit Mich.: Omnigraphics, 2002.

Guren, Jay. Carnival panorama. New Orleans Mardi Gras medals and Krewes 1884-1965. New Orleans: Anderson Publications, 1966.

Hales, Stephen. The Rex Doubloon: Commemorating 50 Years. New Orleans: Arthur Hardy Enterprises, 2009.

Hales, Stephen W. Rex – An Illustrated History of the School of Design. Arthur Hardy Enterprises, 2010.

Hardy, Arthur. “History of Mardi Gras.” Arthur Hardy’s Mardi Gras Guide, 2011.

———. Mardi Gras in New Orleans- An Illustrated History. New Orleans, LA: Arthur Hardy Enterprises, 2001.

Hernandez, Vivian V. “Hot Tossed Fun.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, January 26, 2005.

———. “Throw Business.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 11, 2004.

Hirsch, Arnold R. Creole New Orleans: Race and Americanization. Louisiana State Univ Pr, 1992.

Hover, Eleanore. “The Coins of Carnival.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 5, 1967. http://infoweb.newsbank.com.ezproxy.uno.edu/iw-search/we/HistArchive/.

Huber, Leonard V. Mardi Gras: A Pictorial History of Carnival in New Orleans. Pelican Publishing, 1976.

Hurst, Willmarine. “Contrast and comparison of the Mardi Gras Indians of New Orleans,” 2008.

Jankowiak, William, and C. Todd White. “Carnival on the Clipboard: An Ethnological Study of New Orleans Mardi Gras.” Ethnology 38, no. 4. University of Pittsburgh- Of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education (Autumn 1999): 335-349.

“Jovial Zulu King Parades Past Mayor Walker, Tossing Royal Cocoanut as Token of Esteem.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 22, 1928. http://infoweb.newsbank.com.ezproxy.uno.edu/iw-search/we/HistArchive/.

Katz, Allen. “Economy of Mardi Gras.” Arthur Hardy’s Mardi Gras Guide, 1991.

Kennedy, Al. Big Chief Harrison and the Mardi Gras Indians. Pelican Publishing, 2010.

Kinser, Samuel. Carnival, American Style: Mardi Gras at New Orleans and Mobile. 1st ed. University Of Chicago Press, 1990.

Krupa, Michelle. “Krewes’ Oohs and Ahs.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, March 2, 2011.

———. “Recession Hasn’t Dampened Carnival Bead Buying Binge.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 13, 2009.

———. “The Name of the Game.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, January 25, 2008.

La Cour, Arthur. New Orleans masquerade chronicles of carnival. New Orleans: Pelican Pub. Co., 1952.

Laborde, Errol. “Behind the mask of Mardi Gras a socio-political analysis of the impact of a large-scale festival on a major metropolitan area,” 1975.

———. Krewe: The Early New Orleans Carnival Comus to Zulu. 1st ed. Carnival Press, 2007.

———. Marched the Day God: A History of the Rex Organization. New Orleans, LA: The School of Design, 1999.

LaFrance, Siona. “The Zulu Coconut.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 8, 2002.

Lawrence, John H. “Review: Mardi Gras Treasures- Invitations of the Golden Age.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 43, no. 2 (Spring 2002): 246-248.

Leathem, Karen. “”A carnival according to their own desires” : gender and Mardi Gras in New Orleans, 1870-1941,” 1995.

Leon, Thomas Cooper De. Creole carnivals: (Mardi Gras) : their ancient origin, American growth and business outcome, with sketches of outside carnivals. University of Michigan Library, 1898.

LePage du Pratz, Antoine Simon. History of Louisiana. Reprint. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana American Revolution Bicentennial Commission and Louisiana State University Press, 1774. http://www.fullbooks.com/History-of-Louisisana1.html.

Lindahl, Carl. “A Note on the Festive, Cultural, and Geographic Range of This Issue.” The Journal of American Folklore 114, no. 452 (Spring 2001): 140-143.

———. “The Presence of the Past in the Cajun Country Mardi Gras.” Journal of Folklore Research 33, no. 2 (May 1996): 125-153.

Lindahl, Carl, and Carolyn Ware. Cajun Mardi Gras Masks. University Press of Mississippi, 1997.

Lipsitz, George. “Mardi Gras Indians: Carnival and Counter-Narrative in Black New Orleans.” Cultural Critique, no. 10 (Autumn 1988): 99-121.

Lohman, Jon. “”It Can’t Rain Every Day”: The Year-Round Experience of Carnival.” Western Folklore 58, no. 4 (1999): 279.

“LOUISiana Digital Library- Mardi Gras Collections.” LOUISiana Digital Library, n.d. http://cdm15140.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm4/results.php?CISORESTMP=results.php&CISOVIEWTMP=item_viewer.php&CISOMODE=grid&CISOGRID=thumbnail,A,1;title,A,1;subjec,A,0;descri,200,0;none,A,0;20;title,none,none,none,none&CISOBIB=title,A,1,N;subjec,A,0,N;descri,200,0,N;none,A,0,N;none,A,0,N;20;title,none,none,none,none&CISOTHUMB=20%20%284×5%29;title,none,none,none,none&CISOTITLE=20;title,none,none,none,none&CISOHIERA=20;subjec,title,none,none,none&CISOSUPPRESS=0&CISOTYPE=link&CISOOP1=exact&CISOFIELD1=title&CISOBOX1=&CISOOP2=exact&CISOFIELD2=subjec&CISOBOX2=Mardi%20Gras&CISOOP3=exact&CISOFIELD3=descri&CISOBOX3=&CISOOP4=exact&CISOFIELD4=CISOSEARCHALL&CISOBOX4=&c=exact&CISOROOT=all.

“Mardi Gras Collection- Louisiana State Museum.” Louisiana State Museum, n.d. http://lsm.crt.state.la.us/mgras/mardigras.htm.

Marks, Janet. “Mardi Gras.” Mississippi Review 2, no. 2 (1973): 18.

Marszalek, Keith. “Zulu Has Its Coconuts, But the Krewe of Muses Has Shoes.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 19, 2009.

Mayer, Vicki. “Letting It All Hang Out: Mardi Gras Performances Live and on Video.” TDR (1988-) 51, no. 2 (Summer 2007): 76-93.

McLain, James. An Economic Study of the Mardi Gras Celebration Within Jefferson Parish, 1997. Jefferson Parish, LA: Jefferson Parish Louisiana Office of the Council, 1997.

———. Mardi Gras 2000: Its Economic Impact. New Orleans, LA: The Mayor’s Mardi Gras Advisory Committee, 2001.

———. The Economic Impact of Mardi Gras. New Orleans, LA: Division of Business and Economic Research, College of Business Administration, University of New Orleans, 1995.

———. The Economic Impact of Mardi Gras on Jefferson Parish, 1990. 2 vols. Jefferson Parish, LA: The United Carnival Clubs of Jefferson Parish Inc, 1990.

———. The Economic Impact of Mardi Gras- 1999. New Orleans, LA: The Mayor’s Mardi Gras Advisory Committee, 2000.

———. The Economics of Mardi Gras- 1987. New Orleans, LA: Carnival Krewe Civic Foundation, Inc, 1998.

McNulty, Ian. “Bead Counters: Carnival’s Economic Impact.” New Orleans, February 2010.

Mistretta, Andrea. Mardi Gras Parade of Posters. Pelican Publishing, 2009.

Mitchell, Reid. “Where Was Pierre Clement de Laussat during Carnival 1808?.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 34, no. 1 (Winter 1993): 107.

Modica, Justine, and Dartmouth College. “Mardi Gras Indians and the Krewe of Zulu : a history of black carnival traditions in New Orleans,” 2009.

Monegain, Louise. “The Joy of Travel: World’s Biggest Party.” Chicago Metro News. Chicago Ill., November 7, 1981. http://infoweb.newsbank.com.ezproxy.uno.edu/iw-search/we/HistArchive/.

Monje, Carlos. “Carnival and society : the Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club, 1909-1961,” 2000.

Montoya, Maria. “Bigger, Better Beads.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 11, 2004.

———. “Coco Loco!.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, January 28, 2008.

Mowbray, Rebecca. “Corporate Takeover?.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, March 2, 2003.

“New Orleans Carnival Collection- Special Collections- University of New Orleans.” University of New Orleans. Earl K. Long Library, n.d. http://library.uno.edu/specialcollections/inventories/122.htm.

Orloff, Alexander. Carnival. Austria: Welsermuhl, 1981.

Osborn, Royce. All on a Mardi Gras Day. Spyboy Pictures, 2008.

Rambuss, Richard. “Spenser and Milton at Mardi Gras: English Literature, American Cultural Capital, and the Reformation of New Orleans Carnival.” boundary 2 27, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 45-72.

Rayford, Julian Lee. Chasing the Devil Round a Stump: History of Mardi Gras 1704-1962. Mobile, AL: American Printing Co, 1962.

Redmon, David. Mardi Gras– made in China; No logo– brands, globalization & resistance ; Matamores– the human face of globalization. Videodisc. Ironweed Film Club, 2008.

———. “Testing informal social control theory: examining lewd behavior during mardi gras.” Deviant Behavior 23, no. 4 (July 1, 2002): 363-384.

“Rex Reigns Over Mardi Gras: The Rainment of New Orleans Double Rulers Cost a Fortune.” Kansas City Star. Kansas City, March 2, 1908. http://infoweb.newsbank.com.ezproxy.uno.edu/iw-search/we/HistArchive/.

Ricks, Laura. “Mardi Gras Bound? Learn About Beads Before You Head to New Orleans.” The Times-Picayune. New Orleans, LA, January 19, 2010.

Roach, John. “The Rich History of Mardi Gras’s Cheap Trinkets.” National Geographic News, 2004. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/pf/5626601.html.

Roach, Joseph. “Carnival and the Law in New Orleans.” TDR (1988-) 37, no. 3 (Autumn 1993): 42-75.

———. “Mardi Gras Indians and Others: Genealogies of American Performance.” Theatre Journal 44, no. 4 (December 1992): 461-483.

Sands, Rosita M. “Carnival Celebrations in Africa and the New World: Junkanoo and the Black Indians of Mardi Gras.” Black Music Research Journal 11, no. 1 (Spring 1991): 75-92.

Sawin, Patricia E. “Transparent Masks: The Ideology and Practice of Disguise in Contemporary Cajun Mardi Gras.” The Journal of American Folklore 114, no. 452 (Spring 2001): 175-203.

Saxon, Lyle. Fabulous New Orleans, New York ;London: The Century Co., 1928.

Schindler, Henri. Mardi Gras New Orleans. New Orleans, LA: Flammarion, 1997.

———. Mardi Gras Treasures: Costume Designs of the Golden Age. Pelican Publishing, 2002.

———. Mardi Gras Treasures: Float Designs of the Golden Age. Pelican Publishing, 2001.

———. Mardi Gras Treasures: Invitations of the Golden Age. Pelican Publishing, 2000.

———. Mardi Gras Treasures: Jewelry of the Golden Age. Pelican Publishing, 2006.

Schiro, Mrs. Victor “Sunny”. “Throw Me Something, Mister.” Mardi Gras in New Orleans, 1968.

Sciama, Lidia D., and Joanne B. Eicher. Beads and Bead Makers: Gender, Material Culture and Meaning. Berg Publishers, 1998.

Sexton, Rocky L. “Cajun Mardi Gras: Cultural Objectification and Symbolic Appropriation in a French Tradition.” Ethnology 38, no. 4 (Autumn 1999): 297-313.

———. “Ritualized Inebriation, Violence, and Social Control in Cajun Mardi Gras.” Anthropological Quarterly 74, no. 1 (January 2001): 28-38.

Sexton, Rocky L., and Harry Oster. “Une ‘Tite Poule Grasse ou la Fille Aînée [A Little Fat Chicken or the Eldest Daughter]: A Comparative Analysis of Cajun and Creole Mardi Gras Songs.” The Journal of American Folklore 114, no. 452 (Spring 2001): 204-224.

Shrum, Wesley, and John Kilburn. “Ritual Disrobement at Mardi Gras: Ceremonial Exchange and Moral Order.” Social Forces 75, no. 2 (December 1996): 423-458.

Smith, Michael. Mardi Gras Indians. Pelican Publishing, 1994.

Smith, Michael P. “Behind the Lines: The Black Mardi Gras Indians and the New Orleans Second Line.” Black Music Research Journal 14, no. 1 (Spring 1994): 43-73.

Sommer Shalett, Karen. “A Rully Big Shoe.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, February 2, 2005.

Souther, Jonathan Mark. New Orleans on Parade: Tourism And the Transformation of the Crescent City. Louisiana State University Press, 2006.

“Special Collections- Jefferson Parish Public Library.” JPL, n.d. http://www.jefferson.lib.la.us/branches/jplpage.eastbankregional.html.

Spitzer, Nicholas. “Zydeco and Mardi Gras : creole identity and performance genres in rural French Louisiana,” 1991.

Stanonis, Anthony J. Creating the Big Easy: New Orleans And the Emergence of Modern Tourism, 1918-1945. Illustrated edition. University of Georgia Press, 2006.

Tallant, Robert. Mardi Gras . . . As It Was. Pelican Publishing, 1989.

Tallant, Robert, and Lyle Saxon. Gumbo Ya-Ya: Folk Tales of Louisiana. 1st ed. Pelican Publishing, 1987.

Tassin, Myron, and Gaspar Stall. Mardi Gras and Bacchus: Something Old, Something New. 1st ed. Pelican Publishing Company, 1984.

“The Carnival Collection- Louisiana Research Collection- Tulane University.” Tulane University. Louisiana Research Collection, n.d. http://larc.tulane.edu/exhibits/carnival.

Thier, David. “Bead Recycling Program Gives New Life to Carnival Throws.” Aol.com. AOL News, March 11, 2011. http://www.aolnews.com/2011/03/11/bead-recycling-program-gives-new-life-to-mardi-gras-throws/.

Unknown. “Carnival Capital in Gay Attire As Pershing and Rex Draw Near; God of Revelry Ousts Dull Care.” The Times-Picayune. New Orleans, LA, February 16, 1920.

———. “Mardi Gras.” Wiskonsan Enquirer. Madison, Wisconsin, April 6, 1839.

———. “Talk of the south: did New Orleans
sell soul by marketing Mardi Gras: ‘official’ trademark seen as slap at tradition.” Atlanta Journal and Constitution. Atlanta, February 2, 1994, sec. Section 1,1.

VanSpanckeren, Kathryn. “The Mardi Gras Indian Song Cycle: A Heroic Tradition.” MELUS 16, no. 4 (Winter, – Winter, 1990 1989): 41-56.

Vidrine, Beverly. Mardi Gras Dictionary, A. Reprint. Pelican Publishing, 1997.

Walker, Judy. “Throw-Cup King.” Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA). New Orleans, LA, March 17, 2011.

Ware, Carolyn E. “Anything to Act Crazy: Cajun Women and Mardi Gras Disguise.” The Journal of American Folklore 114, no. 452 (Spring 2001): 225-247.

———. Cajun Women and Mardi Gras: Reading the Rules Backward. 1st ed. University of Illinois Press, 2006.

Warren, Audrey. “Mardi Gras Bead Mania Bewilders Chinese.” Wall Street Journal. New York, February 24, 2004.

“Welcome King at Mardi Gras: New Orleans Festivities Open With Gayety.” Fort Worth Star Telegram. Fort Worth, TX, March 2, 1908. http://infoweb.newsbank.com.ezproxy.uno.edu/iw-search/we/HistArchive/.

Wilkinson Sr, Hugh M. “History of Carnival.” Mardi Gras in New Orleans, 1968.

Young, Perry. Carnival and Mardi-gras in New Orleans, New Orleans: Harmanson’s, 1939.

———. The Mystick krewe chronicles of Comus and his kin, New Orleans: Carnival Press, 1931.

© 2012 New Orleans Research Collaborative Image credits are here