Bibliography: Race

Team: Marek Steedman (lead), Sara Hudson, Jessica Marie Johnson, Sara Picard
Version: July 2011

The purpose of this bibliography is to collect primary and secondary materials related to race in New Orleans. We seek to advance a critical engagement with race in the history and culture of New Orleans, from the colonial period to the present, through a wide variety of source material. The bibliography is also organized into a series of subtopical views. These topical views are not intended to simply list possible sources for research, but also to invite debate and discussion over how the study of race in New Orleans is most productively categorized and thought. What do these subcategories illuminate? What do they obscure? Join the conversation!

Some suggestions for essential starting places are noted with double asterisks in the Main Bibliography below. Sub-categories are available for the following topics:

Main Bibliography

Adams, Jessica. Wounds of Returning: Race, Memory, and Property on the Postslavery Plantation. The University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Airriess, Christopher A., and David L. Clawson. “Versailles: A Vietnamese Enclave in New Orleans, Louisiana.” Journal of Cultural Geography 12, no. 1 (1991): 1.

Ames, John Crehore. Letter to his sister. “Camp Kearney, Carrollton, La,” January 28, 1863.

Anderson, R. Bentley. Black, White, and Catholic: New Orleans Interracialism, 1947-1956. Vanderbilt University Press, 2008.

**Arnesen, Eric. Waterfront Workers of New Orleans: Race, Class, and Politics, 1863-1923. University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Ashkenazi, Elliott. The Business of Jews in Louisiana, 1840-1875. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1988.

Baade, Hans W. “The Gens de Couleur of Louisiana: Comparative Slave Law in Microcosm.” Cardozo Law Review 18 (1996): 535-586.

Bailey, John. The Lost German Slave Girl: The Extraordinary True Story of Sally Miller and Her Fight for Freedom in Old New Orleans. Waterville, Maine: Thorndike Press, 2003.

Baker, Liva. The Second Battle of New Orleans: The Hundred-Year Struggle to Integrate the Schools. PerfectBound, 1996.

Baugh, John. “It Ain’t About Race: Some Lingering (Linguistic) Consequences of the African Slave Trade and Their Relevance to Your Personal Historical Hardship Index.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 3, no. 01 (2006): 145-159.

Baum, Dan. Nine Lives: Death and Life in New Orleans. 1st ed. Spiegel & Grau, 2009.

**Bell, Caryn Cosse. Revolution, Romanticism, and the Afro-Creole Protest Tradition in Louisiana, 1718-1868. Louisiana State University Press, 2004.

Bennett, James B. Religion and the Rise of Jim Crow in New Orleans. Princeton University Press, 2005.

Bibb, Henry. “Henry Bibb, 1815-1854 Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, an American Slave, Written by Himself.,” 1849.

**Blassingame, John W. Black New Orleans, 1860-1880. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1973.

Blue Book. Seventh. Blue Book. New Orleans, 1906.

Blue Book. Ninth. Blue Book. New Orleans, 1908.

Blue Book. Tenth Edition. Blue Book. New Orleans, 1909.

Blue Book. Blue Book. New Orleans, 1910.

Regarding the Blue Books: The official guide to Storyville, a legalized area for prostitution in New Orleans between 1897 and 1917. The guide lists residents and landladies of all houses of prostitution, with divisions by race, which, over the run of the serial, range from identifications including “white,” “colored,” “octoroon,” “Jewess” and “French.” The guide was published every year; each listing here is a new edition. It is notable as well for its ads, making explicit both the famous local characters of the district, and the specific offerings – of women, art, luxury, and drink – of each house.

Bond, Bradley G. French Colonial Louisiana and the Atlantic World. LSU Press, 2005.

BondGraham, Darwin. “The New Orleans that Race Built: Racism, Disaster, and Urban Spatial Relationships..” Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture & Society 9, no. 1 (January 2007): 4-18.

Bonner, Fred Arthur II. “Guest Editorial: God’s Gon’ Trouble the Water: An African American Academic’s Retrospective on Hurricane Katrina.” The Journal of Negro Education 75, no. 4 (Fall 2006): 573-578.

Bontemps, Arna. “Special Collections of Negroana.” The Library Quarterly 14, no. 3 (July 1944): 187-206.

Brady, Patricia. “Black Artists in Antebellum New Orleans.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 32, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 5-28.

Brasseaux, Carl A., and Glenn R. Conrad, eds. The Road to Louisiana the Saint-Domingue Refugees. Lafayette: Center for Louisiana Studies, 1992. Input this URL in a browser to get JPEG cover art data. JPEG OCLC EC width=123 height=187 cover art.

Bridges, Ruby. Through My Eyes. Scholastic Press, 2000.

Broussard, Mercedese. “Review: Black Men Cried Softly.” Callaloo, no. 11 (October 1981): 211-214.

Brown, William Wells. “William Wells Brown, 1814?-1884 Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave. Written by Himself.,” 1847.

Broyard, Bliss. One Drop: My Father’s Hidden Life – A Story of Race and Family Secrets. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2007.

Bryan, Violet Harrington. The Myth of New Orleans in Literature: Dialogues of Race and Gender. University of Tennessee Press, 1993.

Bullard, Robert D. In Search of the New South: The Black Urban Experience in the 1970s and 1980s. First Edition. University Alabama Press, 1991.

Chapter 2, “New Orleans: The City That Care Forgot,” by Beverly Hendrix Wright is a case study of New Orleans.

———. The Black Metropolis in the Twenty-First Century: Race, Power, and Politics of Place. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007.

Bullard, Robert D., and Beverly H. Wright. “Black New Orleans: Before and After Hurricane Katrina.” In The Black Metropolis in the Twenty-First Century: Race, Power, and Politics, 173-197. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.

Buras, Kristen, Jim Randels, and Kalamu ya Salaam. Pedagogy, Policy, and the Privatized City: Stories of Dispossession and Defiance from New Orleans. New York: Columbia Teachers College Press, 2010.

Burns, Mick, ed. Walking with Legends: Barry Martyn’s New Orleans Jazz Odyssey, n.d.

Cable, George Washington. The Grandissimes, 1880.

———. The Negro Question. C. Scribner’s Sons, 1898.

Campbell-Rock, C. C. “Black Tourists Pump Millions into the New Orleans Economy…White Businesses Are Getting All the Bucks…What’s Up?.” New Orleans Tribune, July 1998.

Cass, Julia. “Notable Mardi Gras Absences Reflect Loss of Black Middle Class.”, February 25, 2006.

Cassimere, Raphael. African Americans in New Orleans Before the Civil War. College of Urban and Public Affairs, University of New Orleans, 1995.

Cecil, Katherine. “CecilFilm Productions,” n.d.

Chase, S.P. “Letter from Chief Justice Chase to a committee of colored men. New Orleans, June 6, 1865.,” New Orleans 1865. Printed Ephemera Collection. Library of Congress Catalog.

Chesnutt, Charles W. Paul Marchand, F.M.C. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998.

Cheung, Floyd D. “”Les Cenelles” and Quadroon Balls: “Hidden Transcripts” of Resistance and Domination in New Orleans, 1803-1845.” The Southern Literary Journal 29, no. 2 (Spring 1997): 5-16.

Christian, Marcus. “I Am New Orleans.” Literary Journal/archive, 6, 2008.

Clark, Emily. Masterless Mistresses the New Orleans Ursulines and the Development of a New World Society. Williamsburg: Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2007. Table of contents only

**Clark, John G. New Orleans, 1718-1812: An Economic History. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976.

Clinton, Catherine, and Michele Gillespie, eds. The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South. Oxford University Press, USA, 1997.

[Chapters on black women by Hall, Hanger, Gould and more].

Crutcher, Michael. “Historical Geographies of Race in a New Orleans Afro-Creole Landscape.” In Landscape and Race in the United States, edited by Richard H. Schein, 23-38. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Czaja, Erica M. “Katrina’s Southern “Exposure,” the Kanye Race Debate, and the Repercussions of Discussion..” Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture & Society 9, no. 1 (January 2007): 53-71.

Daley, T. A. “Victor Sejour.” Phylon (1940-1956) 4, no. 1 (Qtr 1, 1943): 5-2.

Dao, James. “Study Says 80% of New Orleans Blacks May Not Return.”, January 26, 2006.

Davis, Mike. “Who Is Killing New Orleans?.” The Nation, March 23, 2006.

Dawdy, Shannon Lee. Building the Devil’s Empire: French Colonial New Orleans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Dent, Tom. “Marcus B. Christian: A Reminiscence and an Appreciation.” Black American Literature Forum 18, no. 1 (Spring 1984): 22-26.

Desdunes, Rodolphe Lucien. Our People and Our History. Louisiana State University Press, 1973.

Dessens, Nathalie. From Saint-Domingue to New Orleans: Migration and Influences. 1st ed. University Press of Florida, 2007.

———. “The Saint-Domingue Refugees and the Preservation of Gallic Culture in Early American New Orleans.” French Colonial History 8 (2007): 53-69.

Dethloff, Henry C., and Robert R. Jones. “Race Relations in Louisiana, 1877-98.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 9, no. 4 (Autumn 1968): 301-323.

Din, Gilbert C. Spaniards, Planters, and Slaves: The Spanish Regulation of Slavery in Louisiana, 1763-1803. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1999.

Din, Gilbert C., and John E. Harkins. The New Orleans Cabildo: Colonial Louisiana’s First City Government 1769-1803. Library of Southern civilization. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996.

**Dominguez, Virginia. White By Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press, 1993.

Donaldson, Gary A. “A Window on Slave Culture: Dances at Congo Square in New Orleans, 1800-1862.” Journal of Negro History 69, no. 2 (Spring 1984): 63-72.

Dormon, James H. Creoles of Color of the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, 1996.

Dreisinger, Baz. Near Black: White-to-Black Passing in American Culture. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008.

Dyson, Michael Eric. Come Hell or High Water: Hurricane Katrina and the Color of Disaster. New York: Basic Civitas, 2006.

Everett, Donald. “Emigres and Militiamen: Free Persons of Color in New Orleans.” Journal of Negro History 38, no. 4 (October): 377-402.

———. “Free Persons of Color in Colonial Louisiana.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 7, no. 1 (Winter 1966): 21-50.

Fabre, Michel. “The New Orleans Press and French-Language Literature by Creoles of Color.” In Multilingual America: Transnationalism, Ethnicity, and the Languages of American Literature, edited by Werner Sollors. NYU Press, 1998.

**Fairclough, Adam. Race & Democracy: The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915-1972. University of Georgia Press, 1999.

Fandrich, Ina Johanna. The Mysterious Voodoo Queen, Marie Laveaux : A Study of Powerful Female Leadership in Nineteenth-century New Orleans. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Fischer, Roger A. “Racial Segregation in Ante Bellum New Orleans.” The American Historical Review 74, no. 3 (February 1969): 926-937.

Follett, Richard. The Sugar Masters: Planters and Slaves in Louisiana’s Cane World, 1820-1860. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007.

Foner, Laura. “The Free People of Color in Louisiana and St. Domingue: A Comparative Portrait of Two Three-Caste Slave Societies.” Journal of Social History 3, no. 4 (Summer 1970): 406-430.

Forman, Tyrone A., and Amanda E. Lewis. “Racial Apathy and Hurricane Katrina: The Social Anatomy of Prejudice in the Post-Civil Rights Era.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 3, no. 01 (2006): 175-202.

Fortier, Alcée. “French Literature in Louisiana.” Transactions and Proceedings of the Modern Language Association of America 2 (1886): 31-60.

**Frey, Sylvia R. From Slavery to Emancipation in the Atlantic World. Illustrated edition. Routledge, 1999.

Chapter 7: Lawrence Powell, “Reinventing Tradition: Liberty Place, Historical Memory, and Silk-Stocking Vigilantism in New Orleans Politics.”

Frey, William, Audrey Singer, and David Park. “Resettling New Orleans: The First Full Picture from the Census.” Brookings Institution, n.d.

Frink, Sandra Margaret. “Spectacles of the Street: Performance, Power, and Public Space in Antebellum New Orleans (Louisiana).” Ph.D., The University of Texas at Austin, 2004.

Frymer, Paul, Dara Z. Strolovitch, and Dorian T. Warren. “New Orleans Is Not The Exception: Re-Politicizing the Study of Racial Inequality.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 3, no. 01 (2006): 37-57.

Gaspar, David Barry, and Darlene Clark Hine, eds. Beyond Bondage: Free Women of Color in the Americas. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.

Gehman, Mary. The Free People of Color of New Orleans: An Introduction. Margaret Media, Inc., 1994.

Germany, Kent B. New Orleans After the Promises: Poverty, Citizenship, and the Search for the Great Society. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2007.

Gill, James. Lords of Misrule: Mardi Gras and the Politics of Race in New Orleans. University Press of Mississippi, 1997.

Goldberg, David Theo. “Deva-stating Disasters: Race in the Shadow(s) of New Orleans.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 3, no. 01 (2006): 83-95.

Gould, Virginia Meacham. “’A Chaos of Iniquity and Discord’: Slave and Free Women of Color in the Spanish Ports of New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola.” In The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, edited by Catherine Clinton and Michele Gillespie, 232-246. Oxford University Press, USA, 1997.

**———. “Henriette Delille, Free Women of Color, and Catholicism in Antebellum New Orleans, 1727-1852.” In Beyond Bondage: Free Women of Color in the Americas, edited by David Barry Gaspar, 271-285. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.

Gruesz, Kirsten Silva. Ambassadors of Culture: The Transamerican Origins of Latino Writing. Princeton University Press, 2001.

Guillory, Monique. Some Enchanted Evening on the Auction Block the Cultural Legacy of the New Orleans Quadroon Balls. New York: Guillory, 1999.

———. “Under One Roof: The Sins and Sanctity of the New Orleans Quadroon Balls.” In Race Consciousness: African-American Studies for the New Century, edited by Judith Jackson Fossett and Jeffrey A. Tucker, 67-92. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Haas, Edward F. “The Expedient of Race: Victor H. Schiro, Scott Wilson, and the New Orleans Mayoralty Campaign of 1962.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 42, no. 1 (Winter 2001): 5-29.

Hachard, Marie-Madeleine. Voices from an Early American Convent: Marie Madeleine Hachard and the New Orleans Ursulines. Edited by Emily Clark. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007. Table of contents only

Haddox, Thomas F. “The “Nous” of Southern Catholic Quadroons: Racial, Ethnic, and Religious Identity in “Les Cenelles”.” American Literature 73, no. 4 (December 2001): 757-778.

**Hair, William Ivy. Carnival of Fury: Robert Charles and the New Orleans Race Riot of 1900. Updated. Louisiana State University Press, 2008.

Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. “African Ethnicities and the Meaning of Mina.” In Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of Ethnicity in the African Diaspora, edited by Paul E. Lovejoy and David V. Trotman, 65-81. London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.

———. “African Women in French and Spanish Louisiana: Origins, Roles, Family, Work, Treatment.” In The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, edited by Catherine Clinton and Michele Gillespie, 247-261. Oxford University Press, USA, 1997.

**———. Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Louisiana State University Press, 1995.

Hanger, Kimberly S. “’Almost All Have Callings’: Free Blacks at Work in Spanish New Orleans.” Colonial Latin American Review 3, no. 2 (n.d.): 141-164.

———. “A Privilege and Honor to Serve: The Free Black Militia of Spanish New Orleans.” Military History of the Southwest 21, no. 1 (n.d.): 59-86.

**———. Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans, 1769–1803. Duke University Press, 1997.

———. “Coping in a Complex World: Free Black Women in Colonial New Orleans.” In The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, edited by Catherine Clinton and Michele Gillespie, 218-246. Oxford University Press, USA, 1997.

———. “Landlords, Shopkeepers, Farmers, and Slave-owners : Free Black female Property-holders in Colonial New Orleans.” In Beyond Bondage: Free Women of Color in the Americas, edited by David Barry Gaspar. University of Illinois Press, 2004.

———. “Patronage, Property and Persistence: The Emergence of a Free Black Elite in Spanish New Orleans.” Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies 17, no. 1 (n.d.): 44-64.

———. “Protecting Property, Family and Self: The ‘Mujeres Libres’ of Colonial New Orleans.” Revista — Review Interamericana 22, no. 1 (n.d.): 126-150.

Harris-Lacewell, Melissa. “Do You Know What It Means…: Mapping Emotion in the Aftermath of Katrina..” Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture & Society 9, no. 1 (January 2007): 28-44.

Harrison, James A. “Native French Literature in Louisiana..” The Critic: a Weekly Review of Literature and the Arts, no. 187 (July 30, 1887): 49.

Hartman, Chester, and Gregory D. Squires. There is No Such Thing as a Natural Disaster: Race, Class, and Hurricane Katrina. 1st ed. Routledge, 2006.

Haskins, James. The Creoles of Color of New Orleans. (New York): Crowell, 1975.

Hennessey, Melinda Meek. “Race and Violence in Reconstruction New Orleans: The 1868 Riot.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 20, no. 1 (Winter 1979): 77-91.

Herrin, M. H. The Creole Aristocracy. (New York): Exposition Press, 1952.

Herring, Cedric. “Hurricane Katrina And The Racial Gulf: A Du Boisian Analysis of Victims’ Experiences.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 3, no. 01 (2006): 129-144.

Hersch, Charles B. Subversive Sounds: Race and the Birth of Jazz in New Orleans. University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Hinton, James E. Pollard, and DoorKnobFilms. The Black Indians of New Orleans Martinez, Maurice M. [Wilmington, N.C.]: DoorKnobFilms, 1976.

Hirsch, Arnold R. Dutch Morial: Old Creole in the New South. New Orleans: College of Urban & Public Affairs, University of New Orleans, 1990.

Hirsch, Arnold R. “Waterfront Workers of New Orleans: Race, Class, and Politics, 1863-1923..” Journal of Urban History 21, no. 4 (1995): 511-517.

Hirsch, Arnold R., and Joseph Logsdon. Creole New Orleans: Race and Americanization. Louisiana State University Press, 1992.

Hobratsch, Ben Melvin. “Creole Angel: The Self Identification of the Free People of Color of Antebellum New Orleans.” University of North Texas, History, 2006.

Hogue, James Keith. Uncivil War: Five New Orleans Street Battles And the Rise And Fall of Radical Reconstruction. Louisiana State University Press, 2006.

Hollandsworth, James G. An Absolute Massacre: The New Orleans Race Riot of July 30, 1866. Baton Rouge [La.]: Louisiana State University Press, 2001.

Hollandsworth, James G. The Louisiana Native Guards: The Black Military Experience During the Civil War. Louisiana State University Press, 1998.

Howell, Susan E., and John B. Vinturella. “Forgotten in New Orleans.”, April 20, 2006.

Huddy, Leonie, and Stanley Feldman. “Worlds Apart: Blacks and Whites React to Hurricane Katrina.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 3, no. 01 (2006): 97-113.

Hurston, Zora Neale. “Hoodoo in America.” Journal of American Folklore 44 (1931): 317-417.

Hyde, Samuel C., Jr. Sunbelt Revolution: The Historical Progression of the Civil Rights Struggle in the Gulf South, 1866-2000. 1st ed. University Press of Florida, 2003.

Chapters 2 and 9 focus on Louisiana.

Inger, Morton. “Politics and Reality in an American City; The New Orleans School Crisis of 1960. A Monograph..” Center for Urban Education, February 1969. ERIC.

Ingersoll, Thomas N. “Free Blacks in a Slave Society: New Orleans, 1718-1812.” William and Mary Quarterly 48, no. 2 (n.d.): 173-200.

———. Mammon and Manon in Early New Orleans: The First Slave Society in the Deep South, 1718-1819. 1st ed. University of Tennessee Press, 1998.

Johnson, Jerah. “Jim Crow Laws of the 1890s and the Origins of New Orleans Jazz: Correction of an Error.” Popular Music 19, no. 2 (April 2000): 243-251.

———. “Les Cenelles: What’s in a Name?.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 31, no. 4 (Winter 1990): 407-410.

———. “New Orleans’ Congo Square: An Urban Setting for Early Afro-Amerian Culture Formation.” Louisiana History 32 (1991): 117-157.

Johnson, Walter. Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001.

———. “The Slave Trader, the White Slave, and the Politics of Racial Determination in the 1850s.” The Journal of American History 87, no. 1 (June 2000): 13-38.

Kao, Grace. “Where Are The Asian And Hispanic Victims Of Katrina?: A Metaphor for Invisible Minorities in Contemporary Racial Discourse.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 3, no. 01 (2006): 223-231.

Kaplan, Justin. Walt Whitman: A Life. HarperCollins, 2003.

Includes information on WW’s time in New Orleans, including examples of his writing on New Orleans and Louisiana, and the subsequent suggestion that he may have had a Creole mistress (and birthed six illegitimate children). See p. 140 onward.

Kein, Sybil. Creole: The History and Legacy of Louisiana’s Free People of Color. Louisiana State University Press, 2000.

Kerr, Derek Noel. “Petty Felony, Slave Defiance and Frontier Villainy: Crime and Criminal Justice in Spanish Louisiana, 1770-1803.” Ph.D. diss., Tulane University, 1983.

King, Grace Elizabeth. New Orleans; the place and the people, Macmillan and co., 1896.

Kinnamon, Keneth. “Anthologies of African-American Literature from 1845 to 1994.” Callaloo 20, no. 2 (Spring 1997): 461-481.

Kinzer, Charles E. “The Tio Family: Four Generations of New Orleans Musicians, 1814-1933. (Volumes I and II).” Dissertation, Louisiana: Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, 1993.

Komins, Benton Jay. “Succulent Tomatoes, Extraordinary People and Intriguing Performances: Some Literary and Cultural Encounters with New Orleans’ Creoles.” Comparative Literature Studies 36, no. 1 (1999): 45-67.

Korn, Bertam Wallace. Jews and Negro Slavery in the Old South, 1789-1865. Elkins Park, Pa: Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel, 1961.

———. The Early Jews of New Orleans. Waltham, Mass: American Jewish Historical Society, 1969.

Kuzenski, John C., Charles S. III Bullock, and Ronald Keith Gaddie. David Duke and the Politics of Race in the South. 1st ed. Vanderbilt University Press, 2006.

“La Bibliothèque Tintamarre,” n.d.

“La Patria.” Nueva Orleans [i.e. New Orleans, La.], to 1848 1847.

One of several Spanish-language newspapers printed in New Orleans in the nineteenth century, attesting to its central role in polyglot and multiracial printing in the United States. Connects New Orleans to Mexico and the Carribean, and reveals first hand details of life for citizens and descendants of those countries in New Orleans. Published by J.L. Sollée.

La Violette, Forrest Emmanuel. Negro Housing in New Orleans, 1957.

Lachance, Paul. “Intermarriage and French Cultural Persistence in Late Spanish and Early American New Orleans.” Histoire sociale/Social History 15, no. 29 (May 1982): 47-81.

———. “The Formation of a Three-Caste Society: Evidence from Wills in Antebellum New Orleans.” Social Science History 18, no. 2 (Summer 1994): 211-242.

———. “The Limits of Privilege: Where Free Persons of Colour Stood in the Hierarchy of Wealth in Antebellum New Orleans.” In Against the Odds: Free Blacks in the Slave Societies of the Americas, edited by Jane Landers, 65-84. London: Frank Cass Publishers, 1996.

———. “The Politics of Fear: French Louisianians and the Slave Trade, 1786-1809.” Plantation Society in the Americas 1 (1979): 162-197.

Lash, John S. “The American Negro in American Literature: A Selected Bibliography of Critical Materials.” The Journal of Negro Education 15, no. 4 (Autumn 1946): 722-730.

Latrobe, Benjamin Henry Boneval. Impressions Respecting New Orleans: Diaries and Sketches 1818-1820. New York: Columbia University Press, 1951.

“Le Code Noir, ou Édit du Roi, servant de règlement pour le gouvernement et l’adiminstration de la justice, police, discipline et le commerce des esclaves nègres, dans la province et colonie de la Louisianne; donné à Versailles au mois de Mars 1724.” In Le code noir, ou, recueil des réglemens rendus jusquà présent: concernant le gouvernement, l’administration de la justice, la police, la discipline & le commerce des négres dans es colonies françoises, et les conseils & compagnies établis à ce sujet. Paris: Chez L. F. Prault, 1742.

**Lee, Spike. When the Levees Broke – A Requiem In Four Acts. DVD. HBO Home Video, 2006.

Leeson, Peter, and Russell Sobel. “Race, Politics, and Punishment: Democratic Failure in the New Orleans Mayoral Election,” n.d.

Lie, John. “The Last Last Wave.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 3, no. 01 (2006): 233-238.

Lieberman, Robert C. “”The Storm Didn’t Discriminate”: Katrina and the Politics of Color Blindness.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 3, no. 01 (2006): 7-22.

Lipsitz, George. “Mardi Gras Indians: Carnival and Counter-Narrative in Black New Orleans.” Cultural Critique, no. 10. Issue Title: Popular Narrative, Popular Images (Autumn 1988): 99-121.

Liu, Baodong. Race Rules: Electoral Politics in New Orleans, 1965-2006. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2007.

———. “Whites as a Minority and the New Biracial Coalition in New Orleans and Memphis.” PS: Political Science & Politics 39 (2006): 69-76.

**Lofgren, Charles A. The Plessy Case: A Legal-Historical Interpretation. Oxford University Press, USA, 1988.

Lofton, Williston H. “Review: Colored Creoles and Others.” The Journal of Negro Education 8, no. 1 (January 1939): 79-81.

Logan, John R. Population Displacement and Post-Katrina Politics: The New Orleans Mayoral Race, 2006. Report, 2006.

———. The Impact of Katrina: Race and Class in Storm-Damaged Neighborhoods, n.d.

Long, Alecia P. The Great Southern Babylon: Sex, Race, and Respectability in New Orleans, 1865-1920. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004.

Long, Carolyn Morrow. A New Orleans Voudou Priestess: The Legend and Reality of Marie Laveau. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006.

Louis, Alex, Walter Bowles, and Raymond Grace. Study of Racial Attitudes in Louisiana, Fall of 1966, 1966.

MacDonald, Robert R., John R. Kemp, and Edward F. Haas, eds. Louisiana’s Black Heritage. New Orleans: Louisiana State Museum, 1979.

Malone, Ann Patton. Sweet Chariot: Slave Family and Household Structure in Nineteenth-Century Louisiana. The Fred W. Morrison series in Southern Studies. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Marable, Manning, and Kristen Clarke. Seeking Higher Ground: The Hurricane Katrina Crisis, Race, and Public Policy Reader. Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Marciacq, J. L, and J. L Sollée, eds. L’Album Littéraire: Journal Des Jeunes Gens, Amateurs De Littérature. Nouvelle-Orléans [La.]: J.L. Sollée, n.d.

Literary magazine in which most of the contributors were free Creole men of color, including important free Creole voices like Armand Lanusse.

Martin, Joan M. “Plaçage and the Louisiana Gens de Couleur Libre.” In Creole: The History and Legacy of Louisiana’s Free People of Color. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000.

McConnell, Roland C. Negro Troops of Antebellum Louisiana: A History of the Battalion of Free Men of Color. Louisiana State University studies no. 13. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1968.

Medley, Keith Weldon. We As Freemen: Plessy v. Ferguson. Pelican Publishing Company, 2003.

Meier, August. “Review: The Nineteenth-Century Southern Free Colored Elite: New Sources, New Views.” Reviews in American History 14, no. 2 (n.d.): 222-225.

Michna, Catherine. “Stories at the Center: Story Circles, Educational Organizing, and the Fate of Neighborhood Public Schools in New Orleans.” American Quarterly 61, no. 3 (2009).

Mills, Gary B. “Coincoin: An Eighteenth-Century “Liberated” Woman.” Journal of Southern History 42, no. 2 (May 1976): 205-222.

———. The Forgotten People: Cane River’s Creoles of Color. Louisiana State University Press, 1977.

Mitchell, Mary Niall. “”Rosebloom and Pure White,” Or So It Seemed.” American Quarterly 54, no. 3 (n.d.): 369-410.

Mitchell, Reid. All on a Mardi Gras Day: Episodes in the History of New Orleans Carnival. Harvard University Press, 1999.

Moore, Leonard N. Black Rage in New Orleans: Police Brutality and African American Activism from World War II to Hurricane Katrina. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010.

Murder-C. Death Around the Corner. Vibe Street Lit, 2007.

Murray, Richard, and Arnold Vedlitz. “Racial Voting Patterns in the South: An Analysis of Major Elections from 1960 to 1977 in Five Cities.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 439. Issue Title: Urban Black Politics (September 1978): 29-39.

Narvaez, Peter. “The Influences of Hispanic Music Cultures on African-American Blues Musicians.” Black Music Research Journal 22 (2002): 175-196.

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