Bibliography: Pre-twentieth century (Music)

Johnson, Jerah. Congo Square in New Orleans. Louisiana Landmarks Society, 1995.  

———. “Jim Crow Laws of the 1890s and the Origins of New Orleans Jazz: Correction of an Error.” Popular Music 19, no. 2 (April 2000): 243-251.  

———. “New Orleans’s Congo Square: An Urban Setting for Early Afro-American Culture Formation.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 32, no. 2 (Spring 1991): 117-157.  

Kmen, Henry A. Music in New Orleans: The Formative Years, 1791-1841. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1966.  

Starr, S. Frederick. Bamboula!: The Life and Times of Louis Moreau Gottschalk. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.  

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