Bibliography: Free People of Color and Creoles of Color

Early on, New Orleans’ three-tiered racial hierarchy and large population of free people of color (in French, gens de couleur libres) distinguished it from other North American cities. During the colonial and antebellum period, free people of color enjoyed relative affluence and freedom in comparison to enslaved Africans and people of African descent. However, they did not enjoy the same social, political, economic and educational privileges as whites in the city. Even before the Civil War, many free people of color began to describe themselves as “Afro-Creole” or “creoles of color,” adapting the term “Creole” to denote their pre-colonial heritage. Scholars continue to study how the population of free people of color became so substantial in New Orleans; the racial classification of Creoles of color in various time periods; and their roles in colonial, antebellum and postbellum New Orleans society.

Baade, Hans W. “The Gens de Couleur of Louisiana: Comparative Slave Law in Microcosm.” Cardozo Law Review 18 (1996): 535-586.

Bell, Caryn Cosse. Revolution, Romanticism, and the Afro-Creole Protest Tradition in Louisiana, 1718-1868. Louisiana State University Press, 2004.

Bontemps, Arna. “Special Collections of Negroana.” The Library Quarterly 14, no. 3 (July 1944): 187-206.

Brasseaux, Carl A., and Glenn R. Conrad, eds. The Road to Louisiana the Saint-Domingue Refugees. Lafayette: Center for Louisiana Studies, 1992. Input this URL in a browser to get JPEG cover art data. JPEG OCLC EC width=123 height=187 cover art.

Broussard, Mercedese. “Review: Black Men Cried Softly.” Callaloo, no. 11 (October 1981): 211-214.

Broyard, Bliss. One Drop: My Father’s Hidden Life – A Story of Race and Family Secrets. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2007.

Cable, George Washington. The Grandissimes, 1880.

Cassimere, Raphael. African Americans in New Orleans Before the Civil War. College of Urban and Public Affairs, University of New Orleans, 1995.

Cheung, Floyd D. “”Les Cenelles” and Quadroon Balls: “Hidden Transcripts” of Resistance and Domination in New Orleans, 1803-1845.” The Southern Literary Journal 29, no. 2 (Spring 1997): 5-16.

Clark, Emily. Masterless Mistresses the New Orleans Ursulines and the Development of a New World Society. Williamsburg: Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2007. Table of contents only

Crutcher, Michael. “Historical Geographies of Race in a New Orleans Afro-Creole Landscape.” In Landscape and Race in the United States, edited by Richard H. Schein, 23-38. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Daley, T. A. “Victor Sejour.” Phylon (1940-1956) 4, no. 1 (Qtr 1, 1943): 5-2.

Dent, Tom. “Marcus B. Christian: A Reminiscence and an Appreciation.” Black American Literature Forum 18, no. 1 (Spring 1984): 22-26.

Desdunes, Rodolphe Lucien. Our People and Our History. Louisiana State University Press, 1973.

Dessens, Nathalie. From Saint-Domingue to New Orleans: Migration and Influences. 1st ed. University Press of Florida, 2007.

———. “The Saint-Domingue Refugees and the Preservation of Gallic Culture in Early American New Orleans.” French Colonial History 8 (2007): 53-69.

Dominguez, Virginia. White By Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press, 1993.

Donaldson, Gary A. “A Window on Slave Culture: Dances at Congo Square in New Orleans, 1800-1862.” Journal of Negro History 69, no. 2 (Spring 1984): 63-72.

Dormon, James H. Creoles of Color of the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, 1996.

Everett, Donald. “Emigres and Militiamen: Free Persons of Color in New Orleans.” Journal of Negro History 38, no. 4 (October): 377-402.

———. “Free Persons of Color in Colonial Louisiana.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 7, no. 1 (Winter 1966): 21-50.

Fabre, Michel. “The New Orleans Press and French-Language Literature by Creoles of Color.” In Multilingual America: Transnationalism, Ethnicity, and the Languages of American Literature, edited by Werner Sollors. NYU Press, 1998.

Foner, Laura. “The Free People of Color in Louisiana and St. Domingue: A Comparative Portrait of Two Three-Caste Slave Societies.” Journal of Social History 3, no. 4 (Summer 1970): 406-430.

Fortier, Alcée. “French Literature in Louisiana.” Transactions and Proceedings of the Modern Language Association of America 2 (1886): 31-60.

Gaspar, David Barry, and Darlene Clark Hine, eds. Beyond Bondage: Free Women of Color in the Americas. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.

Gehman, Mary. The Free People of Color of New Orleans: An Introduction. Margaret Media, Inc., 1994.

Gould, Virginia Meacham. “’A Chaos of Iniquity and Discord’: Slave and Free Women of Color in the Spanish Ports of New Orleans, Mobile, and Pensacola.” In The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, edited by Catherine Clinton and Michele Gillespie, 232-246. Oxford University Press, USA, 1997.

———. “Henriette Delille, Free Women of Color, and Catholicism in Antebellum New Orleans, 1727-1852.” In Beyond Bondage: Free Women of Color in the Americas, edited by David Barry Gaspar, 271-285. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.

Guillory, Monique. Some Enchanted Evening on the Auction Block the Cultural Legacy of the New Orleans Quadroon Balls. New York: Guillory, 1999.

Hachard, Marie-Madeleine. Voices from an Early American Convent: Marie Madeleine Hachard and the New Orleans Ursulines. Edited by Emily Clark. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007. Table of contents only

Haddox, Thomas F. “The “Nous” of Southern Catholic Quadroons: Racial, Ethnic, and Religious Identity in “Les Cenelles”.” American Literature 73, no. 4 (December 2001): 757-778.

Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. “African Women in French and Spanish Louisiana: Origins, Roles, Family, Work, Treatment.” In The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, edited by Catherine Clinton and Michele Gillespie, 247-261. Oxford University Press, USA, 1997.

———. Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Louisiana State University Press, 1995.

Hanger, Kimberly S. “’Almost All Have Callings’: Free Blacks at Work in Spanish New Orleans.” Colonial Latin American Review 3, no. 2 (n.d.): 141-164.

———. “A Privilege and Honor to Serve: The Free Black Militia of Spanish New Orleans.” Military History of the Southwest 21, no. 1 (n.d.): 59-86.

———. Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans, 1769–1803. Duke University Press, 1997.

———. “Coping in a Complex World: Free Black Women in Colonial New Orleans.” In The Devil’s Lane: Sex and Race in the Early South, edited by Catherine Clinton and Michele Gillespie, 218-246. Oxford University Press, USA, 1997.

———. “Landlords, Shopkeepers, Farmers, and Slave-owners : Free Black female Property-holders in Colonial New Orleans.” In Beyond Bondage: Free Women of Color in the Americas, edited by David Barry Gaspar. University of Illinois Press, 2004.

———. “Patronage, Property and Persistence: The Emergence of a Free Black Elite in Spanish New Orleans.” Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies 17, no. 1 (n.d.): 44-64.

———. “Protecting Property, Family and Self: The ‘Mujeres Libres’ of Colonial New Orleans.” Revista — Review Interamericana 22, no. 1 (n.d.): 126-150.

Harrison, James A. “Native French Literature in Louisiana..” The Critic: a Weekly Review of Literature and the Arts, no. 187 (July 30, 1887): 49.

Haskins, James. The Creoles of Color of New Orleans. (New York): Crowell, 1975.

Herrin, M. H. The Creole Aristocracy. (New York): Exposition Press, 1952.

Hirsch, Arnold R. Dutch Morial: Old Creole in the New South. New Orleans: College of Urban & Public Affairs, University of New Orleans, 1990.

Hirsch, Arnold R., and Joseph Logsdon. Creole New Orleans: Race and Americanization. Louisiana State University Press, 1992.

Hobratsch, Ben Melvin. “Creole Angel: The Self Identification of the Free People of Color of Antebellum New Orleans.” University of North Texas, History, 2006.

Ingersoll, Thomas N. “Free Blacks in a Slave Society: New Orleans, 1718-1812.” William and Mary Quarterly 48, no. 2 (n.d.): 173-200.

Johnson, Jerah. “Les Cenelles: What’s in a Name?.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 31, no. 4 (Winter 1990): 407-410.

———. “New Orleans’ Congo Square: An Urban Setting for Early Afro-Amerian Culture Formation.” Louisiana History 32 (1991): 117-157.

Kaplan, Justin. Walt Whitman: A Life. HarperCollins, 2003.

Includes information on WW’s time in New Orleans, including examples of his writing on New Orleans and Louisiana, and the subsequent suggestion that he may have had a Creole mistress (and birthed six illegitimate children). See p. 140 onward.

Kein, Sybil. Creole: The History and Legacy of Louisiana’s Free People of Color. Louisiana State University Press, 2000.

Komins, Benton Jay. “Succulent Tomatoes, Extraordinary People and Intriguing Performances: Some Literary and Cultural Encounters with New Orleans’ Creoles.” Comparative Literature Studies 36, no. 1 (1999): 45-67.

“La Bibliothèque Tintamarre,” n.d.

Lachance, Paul. “Intermarriage and French Cultural Persistence in Late Spanish and Early American New Orleans.” Histoire sociale/Social History 15, no. 29 (May 1982): 47-81.

———. “The Formation of a Three-Caste Society: Evidence from Wills in Antebellum New Orleans.” Social Science History 18, no. 2 (Summer 1994): 211-242.

———. “The Limits of Privilege: Where Free Persons of Colour Stood in the Hierarchy of Wealth in Antebellum New Orleans.” In Against the Odds: Free Blacks in the Slave Societies of the Americas, edited by Jane Landers, 65-84. London: Frank Cass Publishers, 1996.

Lash, John S. “The American Negro in American Literature: A Selected Bibliography of Critical Materials.” The Journal of Negro Education 15, no. 4 (Autumn 1946): 722-730.

Lofton, Williston H. “Review: Colored Creoles and Others.” The Journal of Negro Education 8, no. 1 (January 1939): 79-81.

Long, Carolyn Morrow. A New Orleans Voudou Priestess: The Legend and Reality of Marie Laveau. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006.

Marciacq, J. L, and J. L Sollée, eds. L’Album Littéraire: Journal Des Jeunes Gens, Amateurs De Littérature. Nouvelle-Orléans [La.]: J.L. Sollée, n.d.

Literary magazine in which most of the contributors were free Creole men of color, including important free Creole voices like Armand Lanusse.

Martin, Joan M. “Plaçage and the Louisiana Gens de Couleur Libre.” In Creole: The History and Legacy of Louisiana’s Free People of Color. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000.

McConnell, Roland C. Negro Troops of Antebellum Louisiana: A History of the Battalion of Free Men of Color. Louisiana State University studies no. 13. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1968.

Meier, August. “Review: The Nineteenth-Century Southern Free Colored Elite: New Sources, New Views.” Reviews in American History 14, no. 2 (n.d.): 222-225.

Mills, Gary B. The Forgotten People: Cane River’s Creoles of Color. Louisiana State University Press, 1977.

Mitchell, Mary Niall. “”Rosebloom and Pure White,” Or So It Seemed.” American Quarterly 54, no. 3 (n.d.): 369-410.

“Native French Literature in Louisiana.” Weekly Pelican: A Republican Journal Abreast of the Times. New Orleans, LA, August 13, 1887, Vol. 1, No. 37 edition.

Rankin, David C. “The Forgotten People: Free People of Color in New Orleans, 1850-1870.” Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1976.

———. “The Impact of of the Civil War on the Free Colored Community of New Orleans.” Perspectives in American History 11 (to 1978 1977): 379-416.

———. “The Origins of Black Leadership in New Orleans During Reconstruction.” The Journal of Southern History 40, no. 3 (August 1974): 417-440.

———. “The Politics of Caste: Free Colored Leadership in New Orleans during the Civil War.” In Louisiana’s Black Heritage, edited by Robert R. MacDonald, John R. Kemp, and Edward F. Haas, 107-146. New Orleans: Louisiana State Museum, 1979.

Redding, Joan. “The Dillard Project: The Black Unit of the Louisiana Writers’ Project.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 32, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 47-62.

Regis, Helen A. “Second Lines, Minstrelsy, and the Contested Landscapes of New Orleans Afro-Creole Festivals.” Cultural Anthropology 14, no. 4 (November 1999): 472-504.

Rodrigue, John C. “Review: Ethnicity in Louisiana: Cajuns and Free People of Color.” Journal of American Ethnic History 17, no. 4 (Summer 1998): 95-97.

Sautman, Francesca Canadé. “Hip-Hop/Scotch: “Sounding Francophone” in French and United States Cultures.” Yale French Studies, no. 100 (2001): 119-144.

Séligny, Michel, and Frans C. Amelinckx. Homme libre de couleur de la Nouvelle-Orléans. Presses Université Laval, 1998.

Shapiro, Norman R., and M. Lynn Weiss. Creole Echoes the Francophone Poetry of Nineteenth-Century Louisiana. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004. Table of contents

Spingarn, Arthur B. “Collecting a Library of Negro Literature.” The Journal of Negro Education 7, no. 1 (January 1938): 12-18.

Sterkx, H. E. The Free Negro in Ante-Bellum Louisiana. Associated University Press, 1972.

“Sybil Kein Creole History Collection,” n.d.

Thompson, Shirley. “”Ah Toucoutou, ye conin vous”: History and Memory in Creole New Orleans.” American Quarterly 53, no. 2 (June 2001): 232-266.

Thompson, Shirley Elizabeth. Exiles at Home: The Struggle to Become American in Creole New Orleans. Harvard University Press, 2009.

———. “The Passing of a People: Creoles of Color in Mid-Nineteenth Century New Orleans.” Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, n.d.

“Tignon Laws in Louisiana.” 19th-century American Women, May 29, 2009.

Tinker, Edward Larocque. Les Cenelles, Afro-French Poetry in Louisiana. New York, 1930.

Toledano, Roulhac, Sally Kittredge Evans, and Mary Louise Christovich. New Orleans Architecture, Volume IV: The Creole Faubourgs. New Orleans Architecture Series. New Orleans: Pelican Publishing Company, 1974.

Trevione, Paul. “Louisiana’s Centennial Tribute to the Negro,” December 25, 1875.

Voltz, Noël. “Black Female Agency and Sexual Exploitation: Quadroon Balls and Plaçage Relationships.” Undergraduate thesis, Ohio State University, African American and African Studies, 2008.

Winston, James E. “The Free Negro in New Orleans, 1803-1860.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 21 (1938): 1075-1085.

Woods, Frances Jerome. Marginality and Identity. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1972.