Bibliography: Beyond Black and White

New Orleans has long attracted people to its shores and continues to foster cultures from across the globe. Although, as Gwendolyn Midlo Hall writes, New Orleans “remains, in spirit, perhaps the most African city in the United States,” vital to its cultural heritage are the stories of the many peoples who planted roots, blossomed, and made New Orleans the panoply it is today. The eighteenth century brought German indentured workers, Acadian migrants and Cannary Islanders. In 1809, white and non-white refugees from Saint Domingue by way of Cuba flooded the city following the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804). During the antebellum years, the Irish fled famine to work in New Orleans, and across multiple centuries, Mexican and Caribbean migrants made their way to the city—including Haitian expatriates, Cuban exiles, Korean war brides, and Vietnamese refugees. In 2005, following Hurricane Katrina, new waves of Latino and Latin-American workers moved to New Orleans, contributing to the city’s rebuilding efforts. While scholarship in this field is growing, New Orleans’ language, food, religion, music, economy, demographics, politics and play continue to be enriched by a diverse and global population. The history and legacy of the city is incomprehensible without looking beyond black and white.

Airriess, Christopher A., and David L. Clawson. “Versailles: A Vietnamese Enclave in New Orleans, Louisiana.” Journal of Cultural Geography 12, no. 1 (1991): 1.

Ashkenazi, Elliott. The Business of Jews in Louisiana, 1840-1875. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1988.

Burns, Mick, ed. Walking with Legends: Barry Martyn’s New Orleans Jazz Odyssey, n.d.

Dessens, Nathalie. “The Saint-Domingue Refugees and the Preservation of Gallic Culture in Early American New Orleans.” French Colonial History 8 (2007): 53-69.

Dreisinger, Baz. Near Black: White-to-Black Passing in American Culture. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008.

Gruesz, Kirsten Silva. Ambassadors of Culture: The Transamerican Origins of Latino Writing. Princeton University Press, 2001.

Hinton, James E. Pollard, and DoorKnobFilms. The Black Indians of New Orleans Martinez, Maurice M. [Wilmington, N.C.]: DoorKnobFilms, 1976.

Kinzer, Charles E. “The Tio Family: Four Generations of New Orleans Musicians, 1814-1933. (Volumes I and II).” Dissertation, Louisiana: Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, 1993.

Korn, Bertam Wallace. Jews and Negro Slavery in the Old South, 1789-1865. Elkins Park, Pa: Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel, 1961.

———. The Early Jews of New Orleans. Waltham, Mass: American Jewish Historical Society, 1969.

“La Patria.” Nueva Orleans [i.e. New Orleans, La.], to 1848 1847.

One of several Spanish-language newspapers printed in New Orleans in the nineteenth century, attesting to its central role in polyglot and multiracial printing in the United States. Connects New Orleans to Mexico and the Carribean, and reveals first hand details of life for citizens and descendants of those countries in New Orleans. Published by J.L. Sollée.

Latrobe, Benjamin Henry Boneval. Impressions Respecting New Orleans: Diaries and Sketches 1818-1820. New York: Columbia University Press, 1951.

Lipsitz, George. “Mardi Gras Indians: Carnival and Counter-Narrative in Black New Orleans.” Cultural Critique, no. 10. Issue Title: Popular Narrative, Popular Images (Autumn 1988): 99-121.

Narvaez, Peter. “The Influences of Hispanic Music Cultures on African-American Blues Musicians.” Black Music Research Journal 22 (2002): 175-196.

Proctor, Samuel D. “Jewish Life in New Orleans, 1718-1860.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 40 (1957): 110-132.

Rodrigue, John C. “Review: Ethnicity in Louisiana: Cajuns and Free People of Color.” Journal of American Ethnic History 17, no. 4 (Summer 1998): 95-97.

Sisters of the Holy Family. “Prospectus of St. Mary’s Academy for Young Ladies of Color.” Prospectus. [New Orleans], circa 1880s . A. P. Tureaud Papers, Series X, Folder 16. Amistad Research Center, New Orleans, LA.

Willis, Deborah. Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers, 1840 to the Present. 1st ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.

Wilson, Carol. The Two Lives of Sally Miller: A Case of Mistaken Racial Identity in Antebellum New Orleans. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2007.