Bibliography: Culture, Politics, and Law

New Orleans’s French and Spanish colonial roots irrevocably shaped its political and legal culture. Cradled in this history is a heterogeneous set of legal practices that gird New Orleans’ cultural and historical differences with British North America. These include the Code Noir, a set of legal measures promulgated in 1724 to police chattel slavery and the large population of free people of color; and the 1808 Civil Code, arguably based on either Napoleonic or Spanish colonial law. New Orleans politics is more famous for its defiance of norms than for its accordance with them. Names like Huey Long and Edwin Edwards, places like pool halls and back rooms, and words like “under-the-table” evoke rowdy, dangerous, controversial and sometimes smutty, political memories. New Orleans political culture also emphasizes family heritage, generational roots, questions of “belonging” to the city, and issues of racial domination and disenfranchisement. Family dynasties dominate city politics in both the twentieth (for example, Morial), and twenty-first centuries (for example, Landrieu.)

Adams, Jessica. Wounds of Returning: Race, Memory, and Property on the Postslavery Plantation. The University of North Carolina Press, 2007.  

Baade, Hans W. “The Gens de Couleur of Louisiana: Comparative Slave Law in Microcosm.” Cardozo Law Review 18 (1996): 535-586.  

Baum, Dan. Nine Lives: Death and Life in New Orleans. 1st ed. Spiegel & Grau, 2009.  

Bennett, James B. Religion and the Rise of Jim Crow in New Orleans. Princeton University Press, 2005.  

Blue Book. Seventh. Blue Book. New Orleans, 1906.

Blue Book. Ninth. Blue Book. New Orleans, 1908.

Blue Book. Tenth Edition. Blue Book. New Orleans, 1909.

Blue Book. Blue Book. New Orleans, 1910.

Regarding the Blue Books: The official guide to Storyville, a legalized area for prostitution in New Orleans between 1897 and 1917. The guide lists residents and landladies of all houses of prostitution, with divisions by race, which, over the run of the serial, range from identifications including “white,” “colored,” “octoroon,” “Jewess” and “French.” The guide was published every year; each listing here is a new edition. It is notable as well for its ads, making explicit both the famous local characters of the district, and the specific offerings – of women, art, luxury, and drink – of each house.

Brady, Patricia. “Black Artists in Antebellum New Orleans.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 32, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 5-28.  

Bryan, Violet Harrington. The Myth of New Orleans in Literature: Dialogues of Race and Gender. University of Tennessee Press, 1993.  

Bullard, Robert D. The Black Metropolis in the Twenty-First Century: Race, Power, and Politics of Place. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007.  

Buras, Kristen, Jim Randels, and Kalamu ya Salaam. Pedagogy, Policy, and the Privatized City: Stories of Dispossession and Defiance from New Orleans. New York: Columbia Teachers College Press, 2010.  

Burns, Mick, ed. Walking with Legends: Barry Martyn’s New Orleans Jazz Odyssey, n.d.  

Campbell-Rock, C. C. “Black Tourists Pump Millions into the New Orleans Economy…White Businesses Are Getting All the Bucks…What’s Up?.” New Orleans Tribune, July 1998.

Cass, Julia. “Notable Mardi Gras Absences Reflect Loss of Black Middle Class.”, February 25, 2006.

Christian, Marcus. “I Am New Orleans.” Literary Journal/archive, 6, 2008.

Clark, Emily. Masterless Mistresses the New Orleans Ursulines and the Development of a New World Society. Williamsburg: Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2007. Table of contents only  

Clark, John G. New Orleans, 1718-1812: An Economic History. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976.  

Dawdy, Shannon Lee. Building the Devil’s Empire: French Colonial New Orleans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.  

Dent, Tom. “Marcus B. Christian: A Reminiscence and an Appreciation.” Black American Literature Forum 18, no. 1 (Spring 1984): 22-26.  

Din, Gilbert C., and John E. Harkins. The New Orleans Cabildo: Colonial Louisiana’s First City Government 1769-1803. Library of Southern civilization. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996.  

Dreisinger, Baz. Near Black: White-to-Black Passing in American Culture. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008.  

Fabre, Michel. “The New Orleans Press and French-Language Literature by Creoles of Color.” In Multilingual America: Transnationalism, Ethnicity, and the Languages of American Literature, edited by Werner Sollors. NYU Press, 1998.  

Fandrich, Ina Johanna. The Mysterious Voodoo Queen, Marie Laveaux : A Study of Powerful Female Leadership in Nineteenth-century New Orleans. New York: Routledge, 2005.  

Foner, Laura. “The Free People of Color in Louisiana and St. Domingue: A Comparative Portrait of Two Three-Caste Slave Societies.” Journal of Social History 3, no. 4 (Summer 1970): 406-430.  

Fortier, Alcée. “French Literature in Louisiana.” Transactions and Proceedings of the Modern Language Association of America 2 (1886): 31-60.  

Frink, Sandra Margaret. “Spectacles of the Street: Performance, Power, and Public Space in Antebellum New Orleans (Louisiana).” Ph.D., The University of Texas at Austin, 2004.  

Gill, James. Lords of Misrule: Mardi Gras and the Politics of Race in New Orleans. University Press of Mississippi, 1997.  

Guillory, Monique. Some Enchanted Evening on the Auction Block the Cultural Legacy of the New Orleans Quadroon Balls. New York: Guillory, 1999.  

Haas, Edward F. “The Expedient of Race: Victor H. Schiro, Scott Wilson, and the New Orleans Mayoralty Campaign of 1962.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 42, no. 1 (Winter 2001): 5-29.  

Haddox, Thomas F. “The “Nous” of Southern Catholic Quadroons: Racial, Ethnic, and Religious Identity in “Les Cenelles”.” American Literature 73, no. 4 (December 2001): 757-778.  

Harrison, James A. “Native French Literature in Louisiana..” The Critic: a Weekly Review of Literature and the Arts, no. 187 (July 30, 1887): 49.  

Hersch, Charles B. Subversive Sounds: Race and the Birth of Jazz in New Orleans. University of Chicago Press, 2009.  

Hirsch, Arnold R. Dutch Morial: Old Creole in the New South. New Orleans: College of Urban & Public Affairs, University of New Orleans, 1990.  

Hobratsch, Ben Melvin. “Creole Angel: The Self Identification of the Free People of Color of Antebellum New Orleans.” University of North Texas, History, 2006.  

Hurston, Zora Neale. “Hoodoo in America.” Journal of American Folklore 44 (1931): 317-417.  

Johnson, Jerah. “Jim Crow Laws of the 1890s and the Origins of New Orleans Jazz: Correction of an Error.” Popular Music 19, no. 2 (April 2000): 243-251.  

———. “New Orleans’ Congo Square: An Urban Setting for Early Afro-Amerian Culture Formation.” Louisiana History 32 (1991): 117-157.  

Johnson, Walter. “The Slave Trader, the White Slave, and the Politics of Racial Determination in the 1850s.” The Journal of American History 87, no. 1 (June 2000): 13-38.  

Kerr, Derek Noel. “Petty Felony, Slave Defiance and Frontier Villainy: Crime and Criminal Justice in Spanish Louisiana, 1770-1803.” Ph.D. diss., Tulane University, 1983.  

King, Grace Elizabeth. New Orleans; the place and the people, Macmillan and co., 1896.  

Kinnamon, Keneth. “Anthologies of African-American Literature from 1845 to 1994.” Callaloo 20, no. 2 (Spring 1997): 461-481.  

Komins, Benton Jay. “Succulent Tomatoes, Extraordinary People and Intriguing Performances: Some Literary and Cultural Encounters with New Orleans’ Creoles.” Comparative Literature Studies 36, no. 1 (1999): 45-67.  

Kuzenski, John C., Charles S. III Bullock, and Ronald Keith Gaddie. David Duke and the Politics of Race in the South. 1st ed. Vanderbilt University Press, 2006.  

Lachance, Paul. “The Formation of a Three-Caste Society: Evidence from Wills in Antebellum New Orleans.” Social Science History 18, no. 2 (Summer 1994): 211-242.  

Lash, John S. “The American Negro in American Literature: A Selected Bibliography of Critical Materials.” The Journal of Negro Education 15, no. 4 (Autumn 1946): 722-730.  

“Le Code Noir, ou Édit du Roi, servant de règlement pour le gouvernement et l’adiminstration de la justice, police, discipline et le commerce des esclaves nègres, dans la province et colonie de la Louisianne; donné à Versailles au mois de Mars 1724.” In Le code noir, ou, recueil des réglemens rendus jusquà présent: concernant le gouvernement, l’administration de la justice, la police, la discipline & le commerce des négres dans es colonies françoises, et les conseils & compagnies établis à ce sujet. Paris: Chez L. F. Prault, 1742.  

Leeson, Peter, and Russell Sobel. “Race, Politics, and Punishment: Democratic Failure in the New Orleans Mayoral Election,” n.d.

Lipsitz, George. “Mardi Gras Indians: Carnival and Counter-Narrative in Black New Orleans.” Cultural Critique, no. 10. Issue Title: Popular Narrative, Popular Images (Autumn 1988): 99-121.  

Liu, Baodong. Race Rules: Electoral Politics in New Orleans, 1965-2006. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2007.  

———. “Whites as a Minority and the New Biracial Coalition in New Orleans and Memphis.” PS: Political Science & Politics 39 (2006): 69-76.  

Long, Alecia P. The Great Southern Babylon: Sex, Race, and Respectability in New Orleans, 1865-1920. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004.  

MacDonald, Robert R., John R. Kemp, and Edward F. Haas, eds. Louisiana’s Black Heritage. New Orleans: Louisiana State Museum, 1979.  

Mitchell, Reid. All on a Mardi Gras Day: Episodes in the History of New Orleans Carnival. Harvard University Press, 1999.  

Murray, Richard, and Arnold Vedlitz. “Racial Voting Patterns in the South: An Analysis of Major Elections from 1960 to 1977 in Five Cities.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 439. Issue Title: Urban Black Politics (September 1978): 29-39.  

“Native French Literature in Louisiana.” Weekly Pelican: A Republican Journal Abreast of the Times. New Orleans, LA, August 13, 1887, Vol. 1, No. 37 edition.

Nossiter, Adam. “New Orleans Election Hinges on Race and Not Rebuilding.” The New York Times, April 4, 2006, sec. National / National Special.

Osbey, Brenda Marie. All Saints: New and Selected Poems. Louisiana State University Press, 1997.  

———. “Tourism in New Orleans: The Black Side.” New Orleans Tribune, November 1987.

Parent, Wayne. Inside the Carnival: Unmasking Louisiana Politics. Louisiana State University Press, 2004.  

Patterson, Sunni. “We Know This Place.” American Quarterly 61, no. 3 (Fall 2009): 719-722.  

Peabody, Sue, and Keila Grinberg. “French Crown, The Code Noir, 1685.” In Slavery, Freedom, and the Law in the Atlantic World: A Brief History with Documents, 31-35. New York, NY: Macmillian, 2007.  

Rankin, David C. “The Politics of Caste: Free Colored Leadership in New Orleans during the Civil War.” In Louisiana’s Black Heritage, edited by Robert R. MacDonald, John R. Kemp, and Edward F. Haas, 107-146. New Orleans: Louisiana State Museum, 1979.  

Reed, Germaine A. “Race Legislation in Louisiana, 1864-1920.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 6, no. 4 (Autumn 1965): 379-392.  

Regis, Helen A. “Second Lines, Minstrelsy, and the Contested Landscapes of New Orleans Afro-Creole Festivals.” Cultural Anthropology 14, no. 4 (November 1999): 472-504.  

Riddell, William Renwick. “Le Code Noir.” Journal of Negro History 10, no. 3 (1925): 321-329.  

Roach, Joseph. Cities of the Dead. Columbia University Press, 1996.  

Rohrer, John. The Eighth Generation: Cultures and Personalities of New Orleans Negroes. Harper, 1960.  

Rose, Douglas D. Emergence of David Duke and the Politics of Race. University of North Carolina Press Enduring Editions, 1992.  

Roussève, Charles B. The Negro in Louisiana: Aspects of His History and His Literature. New Orleans: Xavier University Press, 1937.  

Rowell, Charles H., and Gwendolyn Midlo Hall. “Gwendolyn Midlo Hall.” Callaloo 29, no. 4 (2006): 1049-1055.  

Sala-Molins, Louis. Le Code Noir ou le calvaire de Canaan, 1987.  

Salaam, Kalamu ya. “from “I don’t want to live anywhere where they are killing me”.” Callaloo 29, no. 4 (2006): 1347.  

Schafer, Judith Kelleher. “’Guaranteed Against the Vices and Maladies Prescribed by Law’: Consumer Protection, the Law of Slave Sales, and the Supreme Court in Antebellum Louisiana.” The American Journal of Legal History 31, no. 4 (October 1987): 306-321.  

———. Becoming Free, Remaining Free: Manumission and Enslavement in New Orleans, 1846-1862. Louisiana State University Press, 2003.  

———. Slavery, the Civil Law, and the Supreme Court of Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997.  

Schafer, Judith Kelleher, and George F. Reinecke. New Orleans As It Was: Episodes of Louisiana Life. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006.  

Shapiro, Norman R., and M. Lynn Weiss. Creole Echoes the Francophone Poetry of Nineteenth-Century Louisiana. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004. Table of contents  

Souther, J. Mark. “Into the Big League: Conventions, Football, and the Color Line in New Orleans.” Journal of Urban History 29, no. 6 (2003): 694-725.  

Spingarn, Arthur B. “Collecting a Library of Negro Literature.” The Journal of Negro Education 7, no. 1 (January 1938): 12-18.  

Surrey, Nancy Maria Miller. “The Commerce of Louisiana During the French Régime, 1699-1763.” Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1916.  

Thomas, Lynnell L. “’The City I Used to…Visit’: Tourist New Orleans and the Racialized Response to Hurricane Katrina.” In Seeking Higher Ground: The Hurricane Katrina Crisis, Race, and Public Policy Reader, edited by Manning Marable and Kristen Clarke, 255-270. Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.  

———. ““Roots Run Deep Here”: The Construction of Black New Orleans in Post-Katrina Tourism Narratives.” American Quarterly 61, no. 3 (2009): 749-768.  

———. “Kissing Ass and other Performative Acts of Resistance Austin, Fanon and New Orleans tourism.” Performance Research: A Journal of the Performing Arts 12, no. 3 (2007): 137.  

———. “Romance and Racism in New Orleans.” belles lettres: A Literary Review 9 (2008): 16-17.  

Tinker, Edward Larocque. Les Cenelles, Afro-French Poetry in Louisiana. New York, 1930.  

Toledano, Roulhac, Sally Kittredge Evans, and Mary Louise Christovich. New Orleans Architecture, Volume IV: The Creole Faubourgs. New Orleans Architecture Series. New Orleans: Pelican Publishing Company, 1974.  

Vennman, Barbara. “Boundary Face-Off: New Orleans Civil Rights Law and Carnival Tradition.” TDR (1988-) 37, no. 3 (Autumn 1993): 76-109.  

Vincent, Charles. Black Legislators in Louisiana During Reconstruction. Louisiana State University Press, 1976.  

Walker, Daniel. “Cultures of Control/Cultures of Resistance: Slave Society in Nineteenth Century New Orleans and Havana.” ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (2000): 1.  

Walker, Daniel E. No More, No More: Slavery and Cultural Resistance in Havana and New Orleans. University of Minnesota Press, 2004.  

Willis, Deborah. Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers, 1840 to the Present. 1st ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.